Dr. Garry Denke's Claim Markers*** Circling/Over Artifacts
North Western Europe Neolithic stone circles, henges, barrows, and causewayed camps' first purpose were coal exploration sites, being the remains of diggings that yielded no coal. Stones were placed in the smaller test holes, the 'stone circles', because they would silt in much faster than the deeper coal test trenches, the 'henges, barrows and causewayed camps, having no need of markers, due to their larger size. This is how the Stone Age miners recorded where not to dig in exploration for coal again, at such depths where none was previously found. No maps or coordinates were available to them in comparison to the tools used by explorationists today to record dug and abandoned sites. Given the greater quantity of 'stone circles' on the landscape, in relation to the other methods, the 'stone circling' mining exploration technique was the most popular, for it required much less digging work, and time, to evaluate potential coal bearing sites. The different patterns observable today are the result of various Neolithic coal mining exploration techniques, being the four general types mentioned. However, at some of the coal 'stone circles' exploration sites, such as Avebury, ancient miners did actually go back to retest their coal prospects sometimes, digging again in different places and depths, being convinced that a second try would yield the much needed coal, in spite of past failure. At Avebury, for instance, evidence suggests the ancient miners went back using a different technique on another go around, resulting in a 'henge' with two 'stone circles'. But alas, no coal at the populated, energy poor, Avebury. Centuries later many of these prehistoric mining exploration sites were utilized for various purposes that are well known, which anthropologists and archaeologists study in great detail, however no one has developed a comprehensive and conclusive underlying reason for these coal exploration sites in North Western Europe. This is partly because no anthropologist or archaeologist suggested, knew of, or presented any evidence of coal stone being used for any purpose in the Neolithic, and coal's actual first usage as simple campfire fuel remained hidden. Lack of evidence resulted in limiting its primary use to smelting metals, which prehistorically is untrue. The "Stone Age Coal Mining Theory" is based on the color difference of a black rock (coal) and a white rock (limestone), which currently Stonehenge anthropologists and archaeologists maintain are the same, the Theory chalking in the missing record, in black and white, of the exploration, production, and earliest usage of coal in North Western Europe. First evidence of black coal and white limestone being known in Neolithic time was discovered by the German historian, antiquarian, and Doctor Garry Denke (1622-1699), inventor of the core barrel, who cored the circular Stonehenge Mound Ditch located 100 meters (109 yards, 328 feet) E-SE of Heelstone. Roughly 58,967 kilograms (130,000 pounds) 42 cubic-meters (1,476 cubic-feet) of black Late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) Westphalian Crosskeys Coal and pale-yellow Late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) Namurian Millstone Grit rammed in a 113 meters (~369 feet) circumference ditch in white Late Cretaceous (Santonian) Seaford Chalk outcrop around a high mound pile of white Early Carboniferous (Arundian) High Tor (Birnbeck) Limestone had been found. Because Crosskeys black coal does not outcrop naturally at Stonehenge, its presence with pale-yellow Millstone Grit in the bottom-half of this man-made ditch around a white High Tor (Birnbeck) Limestone reef-like mound situated on a seaward sloping hill suggests Stonehenge was a geologic mining school built during that ancient quest for campfire fuel in energy poor North Western Europe's cold climate unforested areas. The main problem with the generally accepted first cause 'sun worship' theories of anthropologists and archaeologists is this: sun-filled winter days were, and still are, freezing cold during the day time; their so-called 'sun god' had let them down. The Stone Age Coal Mining Theory adheres to the fact that "Coal is a Stone" claiming that it was their hottest 'fire god' that never let the Neolithic people down, especially on sun-filled freezing cold winter days in the Stone Age.
Stonehenge Mound circled by Millstone Grit and Westphalian Coal
(Foreground E-SE Stonehenge Mound and Background is Stonehenge)
The Mound Ditch Coal is from South Wales Coalfield's Crosskeys
(Stonehenge Altar Stone from Red, Stonehenge Mound from Blue, Stonehenge
Grit from Pale-Yellow at Rim, and Stonehenge Coalstone from Black at Rim)
Neolithic Coalfield Quest for Campfire Coal in North Western Europe
(Non-Productive Coal Stone Sites in Blue)
(Productive Coal Stone Sites in Black)
Today Explorationists Just use Maps to Record Non-Productive Sites
(Clear Circles having Quarter-circle Pegs are Non-Productive Sites)
The Stone Age Coal Mining Theory first exposed South Wales Coalfield rim as the hot play for Neolithic coal stone open-pit miners who gathered coal for campfire fuel. There are no pre-Neolithic or Neolithic stone circles, henges, barrows, or causewayed camps on or along the sides of this basin's outer rims. Why is that? The answer is there was no need to explore the rim because bituminous coal is along an easy to see narrow 'road' between black coal and white limestone. This area could quite possibly be the original discovery area of 'old black magic' itself, the first coal ignited with a wood fuel campfire built on a coal seam by chance. There has to be some reason the white Mississippian Limestone, Old Red Sandstone, black Carboniferous Coal, and pale-yellow Pennsylvanian Grit were brought to Stonehenge from this area in South Wales, don't you think? According to the Doctor, who examined the Old Red Sandstone Altar Stone and gathered samples by pale and horse, at Stonehenge, and from along South Wales' pale-yellow Millstone Grit circular rim road, counterclockwise in 1656, with black Coal to his left, and white Lime to his right; "To find coal here," he said, "Just follow the pale 'Grit' road, follow the pale 'Grit' road, follow the pale 'Grit' road..."****
South Wales Coalfield Limestone to Stonehenge tonnage/date Estimates
~400 tons from South Wales Coalfield to Stonehenge Counterscarp in ~31st century BC
~300 tons from Stonehenge Counterscarp to Stonehenge Mound in ~27th century BC
~19 tons from Stonehenge Mound (Counterscarp) to Heelstone Ditch in ~21st century BC
a) 1/4 of Counterscarp Limestone (~100 tons) still in place (see labeled "Counterscarp" in photo).
b) 3/4 of Counterscarp Limestone cored remnants (~tstm) still in place under the rebuilt topsoil.
c) 56 Coal Fire Pits (the 56 Aubrey Holes) of coated bottom cored remnants (~tstm) still in place.
d) *Stonehenge Mound is 3/4 of relocated Counterscarp Limestone (~281 tons) (to left of "Drainage Trench").
e) **Heelstone Ditch bottom-half rammed fill (~19 tons) is Counterscarp Limestone from Stonehenge Mound.
Identical fossils of the South Wales Coalfield's periphery limestone at Stonehenge
04) Caninia cornucopiae
06) Cleiothyridina roissyi
09) Delepinea (Daviesiella) destinezi
12) Hapsiphyllum (Zaphrentis) konincki
14) Megachonetes papilionaceous
15) Michelina grandis
20) Rhipidomella michelini
21) Schellwienella cf. S. crenistria
South Wales Coalfield Grit/Coal to Stonehenge tonnage/date Estimates
Stonehenge Mound Ditch ~113 m (~369 feet) circle circumference length ~21st century BC
Stonehenge Mound Ditch ~42 m^3 (~1,476 cubic-feet) Grit/Coal volume ~21st century BC
Stonehenge Mound Ditch ~58,967 kg (~130,000 pounds) Grit/Coal weight ~21st century BC
a) Crosskeys Coal circling Stonehenge Mound is Late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) Westphalian coal.
b) Millstone Grit circling Stonehenge Mound is Late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) Namurian sandstone.
c) *Stonehenge Mound itself is Early Carboniferous (Mississippian) Arundian limestone and the artifacts.
3/4's of once full circled Counterscarp used as Claim Markers
*Gold, Silver, Brass, Iron, Wood, Stone artifacts in Stonehenge Mound.
**Gold, Iron, Wood, Stone artifacts under Heelstone wings carving.
***Discovered by Dr. Garry Denke, inventor of the core barrel.
****Grit was his horse's name, his pale hung from Grit's bridle.
Iron (ferromagnetic) was first detected at Stonehenge Mound and under Heelstone wings by Denoco Inc.'s Schonstedt Model GA-22 Magnetic Locator in 1984, confirmed again by Denoco Inc.'s Schonstedt Model GA-52C Magnetic Locator in 1994, not by Ancient Monuments Laboratory in 1994 (unpublished). The claim markers*** for the gold, silver, brass, iron, wood, stone, artifacts, were discovered by Dr. Garry Denke using a coring tool, his core barrel invention of 1656. They are Carboniferous rocks, Upper and Lower: Stonehenge Whitestones, Gritstones, and Coalstones; in the quantities and locations listed above.
Gold, Silver, Brass, Iron, Wood, Stone, Artifacts
Anthropologists and archaeologists claim that Dr. Garry Denke discovered neither the ark of the covenant nor its 4 iron wheels at Stonehenge, such gold ark and iron wheels buried directly below Heelstone's flying eagle wings carving facing southwest (SW) at Stonehenge. Anthropologists and archaeologists also claim that he discovered neither Upper Carboniferous rocks nor Lower Carboniferous rocks at Stonehenge whose geological names and descriptions are shown below. His claim markers*** circling/over artifacts following***
The Seven (7) Rock Types at Stonehenge (3 'New'***)
1) Stonehenge White Chalk - The outcrop sedimentary rocks at Stonehenge are the Late Cretaceous Period, Santonian Age, calcium carbonates. The Late Cretaceous Period outcrop sedimentary rocks comprise the first (1st) local in situ construction material used by the Stonehenge builders. This material is approximately 85 million years old. These stones are called Seaford Chalk Formation rocks.
2) Stonehenge Whitestones*** - The oldest limestone sedimentary rocks at Stonehenge are the Early Carboniferous (Mississippian) Period, Arundian Age, calcium carbonates. The Early Carboniferous (Mississippian) Period limestone sedimentary rocks comprise the first (1st) foreign construction material used by the Stonehenge builders. This material is approximately 340 million years old. These stones are called High Tor (Birnbeck) Limestone Formation rocks.
3) Stonehenge Bluestones - The volcanic rocks (oldest geologically) at Stonehenge are the Ordovician Period intrusive igneous diabases (dolerites), and extrusive igneous felsites (rhyolites) and tuffs (basic). The Ordovician Period igneous rocks comprise the second (2nd) foreign construction material used by the Stonehenge builders. This material is approximately 470 million years old. These stones are called Ordovician Volcanic rocks.
4) Stonehenge Coshestons - The oldest sandstone sedimentary rocks at Stonehenge are the Silurian-Devonian Period micaceous sandstones. The Silurian-Devonian Period sandstone sedimentary rocks comprise the third (3rd) foreign construction material used by the Stonehenge builders. This material is approximately 417 million years old. These stones are called Old Red Sandstone Formation rocks.
5) Stonehenge Sarsens - The youngest sandstone sedimentary rocks at Stonehenge are the Oligocene-Miocene (Tertiary) Period silicates. The Oligocene-Miocene Period sandstone sedimentary rocks comprise the fourth (4th) foreign construction material used by the Stonehenge builders. This material is approximately 24 million years old. These stones are called Reading Formation rocks.
6) Stonehenge Gritstones*** - The sandstone grit, conglomerate, limestone, shale, and coal sedimentary rocks at Stonehenge are the Late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian), Namurian Age, silicates, calcium carbonates, and carbons. The Late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) Period sandstone grit, conglomerate, limestone, shale, and coal sedimentary rocks comprise the fifth (5th) foreign construction material used by the Stonehenge builders. This material is approximately 320 million years old. These stones are called Millstone Grit Formation rocks.
7) Stonehenge Coalstones*** - The bituminous coal sedimentary rocks at Stonehenge are the Late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) Period, Westphalian Age, carbons. The Late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) Period bituminous coal sedimentary rocks comprise the sixth (6th) foreign construction material used by the Stonehenge builders. This material is approximately 310 million years old. These stones are called Crosskeys Coal Measures rocks.
And finally anthroplogists and archaeologists claim that Dr. Garry Denke discovered neither the gold table of Moses nor the gold altar of Aaron located with the balance of remaining artifacts inside Stonehenge Mound, at 100 meters (109 yards, 328 feet) east-southeast (E-SE) of such Heelstone flying eagle wings carving facing southwest (SW) at Stonehenge. No one is sure why anthropologists and archaeologists make such claims with no evidence to back them up. Perhaps they will someday. "Until then... G'day."****
1) Denke, G.W. 1973. Stonehenge Phase I: An Openpit Coalfield Model; The First Geologic Mining School (Indiana University of Pennsylvania) GDG, 73: 1-56.
2) Denke, G.W. 1975. Invertibrate Paleontology of the High Tor Limestone (Lower Carboniferous) and the Upper Senonian Chalk (Late Cretaceous) of Stonehenge. (Arizona State University) GDG, 75: 1-7.
3) Denke, G.W. 1977. Possible Source Areas of the High Tor Limestone (Early Mississippian) Fill of the Aubrey Holes and Heel Stone Ditch in Europe. (Arizona State University) GDG, 77: 1-24.
4) Beus, S.S. 1984. Fossil Associations in the High Tor Limestone (Lower Carboniferous) of South Wales. (Northern Arizona University) Journal of Paleontology, 58: 3; 651-667.
5) Denke, G.W. 1984. Mid-Dinantian (Waulsortian Facies) High Tor Limestone: The First Stones Transported to Stonehenge from the South Wales Coast. (Arizona State University) GDG, 84: 1-4.
6) Denke, G. 1984. Magnetic and Electromagnetic Surveys at Heelstone, Stonehenge, United Kingdom. (Indiana University of Pennsylvania) GDG, 84: 5-42.
7) Lees, A. and Miller, J. 1985. Facies variatian in Waulsortian buildups, Part 2; Mid-Dinantian buildups from Europe and North America. (Revised) Geological Journal, 20: 159-180.
8) Geologist, Denke, G. 1986. The Paleontology of Stonehenge, England. (Arizona State University) GDG, 86: 1-3.
(State of Texas, County of Stonewall)